Narrative strategies:
The novel’s structure is one of the most striking narrative strategies. It takes the form of a dramatic monologue, a device common to stage plays and films. In a dramatic monologue, a single speaker addresses another person. In the course of the monologue, he provides insight into his own characters.
The story is also a framed narrative- a story within a story.
Changez addresses his monologue to the American, who despite occasional interruptions, is never actually heard. By structuring the novel as a one- sided conversation, Hamid accomplishes two things.
  1. He symbolically makes America ‘Hear the other side of the story’. According to Changez, America has its own kind of fundamentalism-Capitalism, which makes it blind to the human toll of its foreign policy( Chile, Iraq, Vietnam). By addressing his story to an American, Changez attempts to cut through that single-mindedness and add a new dimension to the American’s view of 9/11, the War on Terror, and what it means to be from a country that America oppresses.
  2. Hamid puts the reader in the American’s position. In doing so, he invites the reader to make his own judgements about what is happening in the story. Hamid begins and ends every chapter by having Changez address the present scene in Old Anarkali. It is important that Hamid chooses to use this facet of the dramatic monologue, since not every speaker usually interrupts himself to address the audience. Hamid’s structure continually reminds us that we are hearing a one-sided story.
  3. Nowhere is Changez and the American’s mutual suspicion clearer than in the final two chapters. Hamid accelerates the story’s pace by making his characters literally move. Their walking creates a new sense of urgency. This is coupled with remarks such as ,’It seems an obvious thing to say, but you should not imagine that we Pakistanis are all potential terrorists, just as we should not imagine that you Americans are all undercover assassins.’ P 209. The suspicion is clearly heightened here.

Predator and prey
This type of symbolism is confined to the present scene in Old Anarkali. Using the predator.prey analogy in this context creates the tension between Changez and the American.
‘a night of importance’
‘That morning, with the demeanour of a man facing the firing squad-no, that is perhaps too dramatic, and a dangerous comparison on this of all evenings.’
‘The frequency and purposefulness with which you glance about-a steady tick-tick-tick..’
‘Ah, I see that you have detected a scent. Nothing escapes you, your senses are as acute as those of a fox in the wild.’
‘The time has now come to dirty our hands..’



Use of allegory.
Changez-is the Pakistani equivalent of ‘Genghis’-connecting Changez to the great Mongolian conqueror Genghis Khan. Genghis attacked Arab Muslim civilization of his time, so Changez would be an odd choice of name for a Muslim Fundamentalist
Underwood Samson- United States-it is a microcosm of America’s ruthless pursuit of money and efficiency. Sherman’s speech to Changez training class sums up the positive side of corporate America. Underwood Samson also goes to other countries with their trade.
Erica- the emotional side of America. She embodies the outward image and the inward emotional state. She is wealthy, popular and glamorous. However, like America, she is deeply flawed. She is so wrapped up in her own problems that she detaches from the rest of the world.
Representative of the old, pre 9/11, Erica accepts Changez as charming. But as an indication of the change in US society post 9/11, cannot actually fulfil a relationship with him. This is the most notable when she and Changez attempt to make love.
When Changez is being himself, Erica is not aroused. When Changez pretends to be Chris, an American and allegorically representative of Christian faith, Erica becomes aroused. Hamid may be showing us that Changez cannot be accepted in America without pretending to be someone or something that he is not. It is also suggesting that America cannot let go of its christian heritage and accept multiculturalism?